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People & Lifestyle

FEATURE: How Uncontrolled Arms Fuel Ethno-Religious and Political Crises in Africa



For decades, Africa has grappled with a high rate of small arms and light weapons (SALWs) proliferation. From one community to another, possession and use of illicit arms by non-state actors has become a common trend and appear to have gone out of control. It is strongly linked to the current tumultuous and tense atmosphere daily experienced in various parts of Africa. While the weapons themselves may not necessarily be the root cause of most emerging, increasing, and unending armed crises that have claimed thousands of lives in the continent, they are the major factors fueling them.

In the last two decades, millions of lives have been lost as a direct result of wars in Africa. Millions have lost their loved ones, including little children who were orphaned, just as many suffer various degrees of permanent disabilities. In Somalia, for instance, the year-long instability remains unresolved as a result of regular SAWLs proliferation into the country. It is documented that weapons such as the PKM general-purpose machine guns are sold in Mogadishu’s Bakara market. A report by Oxfam International showed that privately-owned firearm, licit and illicit, in some African countries are as follows: Libya 900,000; Nigeria: 2,000,000; South Sudan 3,000,000; Sudan 2,000,000; and Somalia 750,000. This begs the question: who is responsible for the proliferation of arms into these violent-torn African?

Sources of SALWs

Many findings have shown that the proliferation of weapons into Africa has both external and internal influence. Reports from a 2006 study suggest that members of Forces Nouvelles, an Ivorian rebel group, were behind the smuggling of weapons into Ghana and Mali, trading them for food and consumer goods. Apart from this intra-continental illicit arm movement, traffickers from other continents were also found culpable. The study showed that “most of the illicit small arms used in Africa originate from China, Israel, and more than 20 OSCE (Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe) members.”

The diversion of legally acquired arms is another common source of uncontrolled and illicit arms. Various factors, including the illegal sale of arms by officials, are responsible for this unlawful diversion. For example, some Nigerian soldiers have been arrested for illegally selling arms to Boko Haram members. Also, there have been some accusations of Ugandan and Ethiopian soldiers serving with the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) selling weapons from their stockpiles to traders in Somalia’s illicit arms market. In Libya, there was a report of military armoury looting after the fall of Muammar Gaddafi. All these looted and stolen weapons by state agents usually end up in the hands of insurgents who use it to unleash mayhem on their perceived enemies in various African communities.

Though supplied and distributed by both external and internal forces, most of these weapons are imported from other continents. At the height of the Niger Delta crisis in Nigeria back in the early 2000s, most of the sophisticated assault rifles and other weapons used by the militants were made in countries like Germany, Belgium, Russia, United States, Czechoslovakia, Serbia, and China, a report by The Jamestown Foundation found.

Another angle to this is locally manufactured weapons. Though these may not be as common as the imported ones and not as sophisticated either, however, they represent a sizable proportion of illicit weapons in Africa. The level of production also varies from one country to another. Some of the commonest locally made SALWs are firearms, small bombs, and grenades. For instance, in Ghana, small arms, such as unsophisticated riffles, are usually made by local blacksmiths. As far back as 2004, it was reported that there were an estimated 35,000 to 40,000 illegally produced guns in just five regions in the country. Nigeria and Benin republic are other African countries reported to have high manufacturing of arms.

Human Costs

In the past few decades, many African countries experienced different types of wars, unrests, and insurgencies that left them with incurable scars and unrepairable losses. In just three countries – Rwanda, Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of Congo, 4.3 million to 8.4 million people lost their lives between 1983 and 2005. The number of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDP) has also increased dramatically in the past few decades, owning to multiple occurrences of violence fueled by arms proliferation. The recurring ethnoreligious and political crises have also contributed to the recent spike in forced migration that has turned many Africans into asylum seekers in the U.K., U.S., and other developed countries.

A report by the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) found that Africa accounted for 52% of all global armed conflict incidents in 2014, despite the continent having only 16% of the world’s population. Between 2011 and 2015, 87% of the 236 global high-intensity conflicts occurred in Africa, some statistics from the Heidelberg Conflict Barometer shows. The rate of violence has also heightened recently as more deadly groups spring up in various parts of the continent. Within four months into this year, Africa has recorded several violent conflicts that have claimed thousands of lives.

In January, over 100 people were killed in Tchombangou and Zaroumdareye villages in Niger. In Nigeria, over 36,000 people have been killed by Boko Haram since the deadly jihadist group started its religious war in 2010. Between February 2020 and January 2021, the daredevil group killed over 650 persons. Other recent attacks by the group include series of kidnapping of school children and slaughtering of dozens of farmworkers in the northern part of the country.

Another recurring crisis is the herder-farmer clash, usually perpetrated by the so-called Fulani herdsmen, in some African country, especially Nigeria. Ranked as the world’s fourth deadliest militant group, reports show that Fulani herdsmen killed 2,539 people in Nigeria between 2017 and May 2020. They have also kidnapped hundreds of people.

Financial Costs

The crises have contributed mainly to the continent’s current state of economic downturns, considering the high level of impoverishment in most violence-torn African communities. A report by the World Council of Churches showed that armed conflicts cost Africa 18 billion U.S. dollars annually. Another study also showed that some 24 African countries, including Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Congo, Senegal, and Sierra Leone, spent around 300 US billion dollar between 1999 and 2007. “This sum is equivalent to international aid from major donors in the same period.” If this fund was not lost due to armed conflicts, it could solve health problems like HIV and AIDS in Africa, or even address the continent’s needs in education, clean water and sanitation, and prevent tuberculosis and malaria, the study found. In Nigeria, billions of dollars have been spent on security in the past few years, especially on the war against the Boko Haram insurgency. In 2017, another $1 billion was approved from the excess crude oil account to further prosecute the war. Such a huge amount would have gone a long way if spent on various economic challenges facing the country.

Addressing the Root Cause

For Africa to experience peace, tranquillity and development, concerted efforts must be made by its leaders at all levels (political, religious, and ethnic). To start with, African leaders need to address the underlying causes of political, ethnic, and religious grievances across the continent. This includes solving the problems of the high level of illiteracy, poverty, and inequalities across the continent. Only then will any efforts towards curbing arms proliferation will yield positive results. Also, African countries must leverage their membership in the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) to regulate the international transfers of arms into their country.


Olusegun Akinfenwa is a political correspondent for Immigration News, a news organization affiliated with Immigration Advice Service (IAS). IAS is a leading U.K. immigration law firm that helps people migrate and settle in the U.K.


People & Lifestyle

Benefits of Consuming Tea



Tea has been consumed by people all across the globe for hundreds of years, and with good reason. A number of tests have been shown to improve your immune system, reduce inflammation, and potentially prevent cancer and heart-related disorders.


While some teas offer various health benefits more than others, there are quite a lot of proven results that consuming tea on a regular basis might improve your overall health.


If you are looking for wholesale glass teapots, you should contact professional glass bottle manufacturing companies. Get ready to get some tea action because we’re about to reveal some of the essential health benefits of some of the most renowned teas around the globe.

1. White Tea

White tea extracts are made from processing the Camellia sinensis plant. This plant is mainly harvested in China or India and has a delicate flavor. It’s also the tea with the least amount of processing.


According to research, due to its high quantity of antioxidants, it may be the most efficient tea in combating many forms of cancer. White tea includes a significant amount of tannins, fluoride, and catechins compounds, all of which can make your teeth stronger, combat plaque, and make them more immune to the effects of acids and sugar.


This kind also has the lowest caffeine content, making it a good choice for tea users who are looking forward to restricting their intake of caffeine.

2. Herbal Teas

Herbal teas, also popularly known as tisanes. Their components are quite similar to that of white teas, but instead of tea leaves, they consist of a unique blend of spices, certain herbs, fresh fruits, and some other specific types of plants. Herbal teas are known for their relaxing qualities because they don’t have a high concentration of caffeine.


Herbal teas come in a variety of flavors, each with its own set of advantages. The following are some of the most renowned herbal tea products:-


Chamomile tea — Aids in reducing menstruation discomfort and muscle spasms, as well as improving sleep and relaxation and lowering stress levels.


Rooibos — helps in maintaining the blood pressure and oxygen circulation, improves the concentration of good cholesterol and reduces the levels of bad cholesterol, keeps healthy dark hair and vibrant skin, and relieves any type of allergies.


Peppermint – The Peppermint herbal tea generally contains menthol, which can help with nausea, reduce constipation, aids in maintaining a proper bowel movement, and cure certain motion sicknesses.  Moreover, it also aids in lowering severe headaches or migraines.


Ginger — Aids in the prevention of morning sickness, the treatment of persistent dyspepsia, and the relief of osteoarthritis-related joint pain.


Hibiscus — Maintains the level of blood pressure and lipid levels, aids in the proper functioning of the liver, can curb sugar cravings, and prevent the formation of kidney stones. 

3. Green Tea

The green tea leaves mainly come from China. There the tea leaves are Furst roasted or pan-fried. However, certain green teas which come from Japan are more typically steamed.


They are primarily stored in a glass jar. Green tea leaves are a rich concentration of flavonoids, which can improve the functioning of your cardiovascular system by maintaining the levels of cholesterol in your body. It also helps in improving the process of blood clotting. This sort of tea has been shown in studies to aid in lowering the levels of triglycerides, overall cholesterol, and blood pressure.


Green tea has been linked to malignancies of the breast, liver, colon, and prostate, and according to other studies. This tea kind has also been proved to be anti-inflammatory, which aids in maintaining clear, bright skin.


Matcha, a specific type of green tea, has become increasingly popular in the last few years. Matcha is a premium, top-quality green tea powder prepared from the whole leaves of shade-grown tea bushes. 


Matcha has a significantly higher concentration of antioxidants than regular green tea because it is the only type of tea consumed by the leaves. Some people believe that the benefits of a single cup of matcha are the same as the benefits of drinking ten cups of regular green tea.

4. Black Tea


Apart from providing green tea, the tea leaves of some of the Camellia sinensis plants are also used to manufacture black tea. On the other hand, black tea is made by drying and fermenting the leaves, giving it a darker color and a richer flavor.


Because black tea contains caffeine, unlike many other varieties, it’s crucial to keep track of how much you drink. When you drink a cup of black tea, you get flavonoids, which fight inflammation and maintain a healthy immune system.


However, you don’t have to drink black tea to reap the benefits of its antioxidants. To ease pain and reduce swelling. Moreover, the black tea leaves can be heated, cooled, and then pressed on minor wounds, bruises, and scrapes, acting as an effective first aid. Inflammation-induced by black tea can also be relieved by a soak in black tea.

5. Oolong Tea

Various products of green, as well as black teas, are made from the same species of plant. The difference lies in the way the tea is processed: green tea is left to oxidize only a little, but black tea is left for a more extended period to oxidize until it turns black. Because oolong tea is halfway between the two, it is slightly oxidized. The color and distinctive flavor of oolong tea are due to its partial oxidation.


L-theanine, an amino acid found in oolong tea, helps to lower anxiety while also increasing alertness and focus. L-theanine has been discovered to aid in the prevention of cognitive illnesses such as Alzheimer’s.


Polyphenols in oolong tea have been associated with considerably lowering inflammation, limiting the growth of cancer cells, and reducing the issues of type 2 diabetics.

Final Thoughts

Many health-conscious individuals have made herbal teas a daily part of their lives because of their numerous benefits. And apart from having these benefits, it does not accompany any side effects, unlike any allopathic medicine. This makes the consumption of green teas a much safer choice.


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People & Lifestyle

How To Make Your Aquarium Safer



If you have an aquarium at home or at your business, you should make sure that it is as safe, and well-maintained as possible. Remember that maintaining an aquarium is a great undertaking, and you should do your best to keep your aquarium safe and clean. If you are going to make your aquarium safe, you should have a strategy. Here are some great tips on making your aquarium safer.


1.Have Regular Cleaning Sessions

If you want to make your aquarium as clean as possible, you should make sure that you clean your aquarium on a regular basis. Remember, that no matter how well covered your aquarium, there is always a way for microorganisms to start and develop in your aquariums. As a rule, you should make sure that you have a schedule for your cleanings.


2. Make Sure You Have A Stable Platform

If you are going to have a large scale aquarium, you should make sure that you have a stable platform. Remember that you will place your aquarium on top of a platform. However, if you are going to choose a platform for your aquarium, it is important that you choose platforms that are reinforced. If you are going to create a stable platform for your aquarium, you should add other features. For example, you could add a small jewelry safe that will allow you to hide your valuables in plain sight. Just make sure to hide your safe in a special compartment.


3. Use Non-toxic Cleaning Materials

If you are going to clean your aquarium, you should avoid using cleaning materials that have toxic ingredients. If you are going to invest in cleaning materials, you should at least use non-toxic soap, and chemicals to clean your aquarium. If you are going to clean your aquarium, you should take out the fish and drain the water. You should then clean and wipe down the surfaces of your aquarium. By doing so, you will be able to clean the aquarium of any algae and other wastes.


4. Replace Your Water Regularly

Aside from cleaning your aquarium on a regular basis, you should also make it a habit to replace your aquarium’s water regularly. Remember that no matter how efficient you are with your cleaning, the water will still get dirty in the long run. What’s important is that you change the water in your aquarium on a regular basis. You should at least change the water every few days. This may seem like a lot of work, however, you should remember that the water in your aquarium is of the utmost importance to keeping your fish and other aquatic organisms alive.


5. Install Lighting

If you want to make your aquarium as aesthetically pleasing as possible, you should really install lighting to your aquariums. The more lighting you use, the more beautiful your aquarium will become. If you are going to install lighting to the aquarium, you should choose carefully. Remember that you will be putting the lights underwater, so they should be waterproof. Why not use Elstar? The company creates some of the very best 5050 rgbw led strip and other LED strip options.


6. Clean Wastes From Your Aquarium

If you are going to house fish in your aquariums, you should remember that your fish will be spreading their wastes in your aquarium.  If you’re going to clean the waste from your aquarium, you should use Mountaintree. The company creates bulk activated carbon for ponds. By using this kind of product, you will be able to clean the wastes from your aquarium, without damaging the fish inside your aquarium.


7. Be Ready To Change Your Aquarium 

While most aquariums are made to last for long periods of time, you will still need to change them on a regular basis. Remember that micro fractures could develop in the long run. These micro fractures are imperceptible to the naked eye. They usually start breaking around a few years. If you notice any fractures or damage on your aquarium, you should make sure to replace your aquarium as soon as possible.


If you are going to replace your aquarium, you should make sure you get the best aquariums in the market. If you are going to choose an aquarium, it is important that you buy a large aquarium. While getting a small aquarium may seem like a more budget friendly option, it is much better to just invest in a large aquarium. This may seem like a big investment, however, you should remember that you will increase your number of fishes, so having a big aquarium will always be a good idea. 


If you are going to make your aquarium as safe as possible, you should have a set plan. With these tips, you’ll be able to make your aquarium as safe as possible.


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People & Lifestyle

Rapper Vic Mensa announces he’s ‘free’ following drug possession arrest



Rapper Vic Mensa is a free man again!


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People & Lifestyle

Things to See While Choosing the Best Cable TV Provider in Your Area



When it comes to cable TV plans, most customers complain of a decrease in entertainment quality, channel options, and a steady increase in monthly bills. Furthermore, they also feel uncomfortable being stuck in a contract.

However, there are still some providers, which facilitate their customers to the max. They manage to retain their old clientele whilst winning new ones. Spectrum is one of such providers. Customers who have subscribed to Spectrum TV packages hardly ever switch.  Role model companies like these take some effort to find but once you do, life becomes easy!

Why Do You Want to Switch?

There can be several reasons why you want to change your cable TV provider. It’s possible that your current TV plan doesn’t meet your entertainment requirements. Or, you want to cut down on the ever-increasing monthly bill by your current provider. Or, you are tempted to subscribe to a better-designed and entertainment-rich TV plan. Or simply because you have moved.

Whatever your reason may be, here are some effective and handy tips to subscribe to the best cable TV provider in your area.

Get to Know the Cable Providers in Your Area


The first step is to figure out the providers in your area. Make a simple Google search and type in your zip code to know which cable TV providers are providing their services in your area. Visiting the official website will provide more authentic results. Furthermore, you also need to know the exact TV plans the providers are offering in your area. Because plans may vary according to location.

The next step is to scrutinize the offered features and compare various details of plans under the same price bracket. The more time you invest in reading out the plans and their details, the more informed decision you will make. Here are some top providers with their list of serviced states for a general idea.

  • Spectrum: Covers 44 states across the United States
  • Cox: Service coverage is in 18 states
  • Xfinity: Coverage area includes 40 states
  • Optimum: Services 4 states including Connecticut, New York, and Pennsylvania
  • CenturyLink: Services 36 states
  • DirecTV: Covers all 50 states

This was just to give a general idea. Depending on your location, find out the exact providers and plans to make the right decision.

Pick a Plan According to your Budget

Cable TV providers offer a range of plans to choose from. You need to define a budget for yourself before you pick a plan. Especially if you are switching to a new provider to cut down on the monthly expenses, make sure you read terms and conditions, basic pricing, added taxes, hidden fees, and everything else in detail.

Plans usually start at around $25 a month. If you are not into premium entertainment and just want to catch up on news and basic channels, they would suffice. However, if you want to watch premium channels, the price tag can escalate up to $100 a month. With this budget, you can get to enjoy hundreds of entertainments, news, and sports channels along with premium channels like Starz and HBO.


Decide the Channels You Want to Have


An average cable TV viewer usually tunes into around 12-13 channels out of the 200 channel tier. So, instead of splurging on a channel tier with an escalated price tag and tons of channels, try sticking to the handful of channels you really watch.

Consider making a list of those must-have channels and then figure out which providers offer those channels. For instance, if you are an avid news follower and you are getting all your must-haves in the lowest channel tier from a particular provider, then go for it. You don’t need to subscribe to the highest channel tier if all your favorite channels from your favorite genres are available in a more affordable plan.


Keep an Eye on Sales, Deals, and Bundles


You may only need a TV plan but sometimes, considering the available providers in your area, there’s a higher monthly price for subscribing to a single service. On the contrary, you can save and enjoy more services like the internet and digital phone when you decide to go for a clubbed offering.

Also, consider the fact that there’s no house without a steady internet subscription. So, bundling internet and TV will only facilitate you especially when you get to enjoy both services at an economical monthly price. Bundles save around $15 on average when you decide to club TV and the internet.

However, while searching for deals and sales, carefully check the expiration dates to avoid the hassle and inconvenience of being charged more automatically.

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People & Lifestyle

Is Lemon Slushie Strain Sativa Dominant One



Nowadays, the legalization of cannabis is increasingly sophisticated. While you visit any dispensaries, you can see a variety of cannabis strains. They are available in various edible forms such as candies, crackers, cookies, oils and tinctures, brownies, etc. Recently the cannabis Sativa dominant strain of lemon slushie gained attraction in the medicinal field. For people who look forward to having a flavorsome and revitalizing ice cannabis flower, the lemon slushie strain is a perfect option for you. It gives an energizing effect to your mind with aroma and has a distinctive appearance.


What is lemon slushie strain Sativa?

It is one of the most amazing refreshing and recreational strains. It is available in the cannabis market now. The hybrid strain gives buds of perfect size, is slightly dense, and has a light green color with dark tones. The plants have layers with the shiny appearance of trichome crystals. Lemon slushie is a dominant strain that provides energy, boosting and forming a sensation. It offers health benefits to the common health problems in our body, such as increasing appetite, removing physical discomforts, and efficiently reducing stress. The aroma of this plant is the peculiarity of this cannabis Sativa strain. The smell comes from the trichome, with large amounts of terpene content.

Appearance and genetics of lemon slushie

The cannabis bud gives an attractive look. It is a weed with a light green appearance and releases a darker greenish look. The layers of the bud are present in orange color and with brown pistils which cover the whole bud. The bulk amount of trichome gives a pleasant look to the buds, and hence the appearance resembles lemon slush.


We get this strain by crossing the lemon haze and Afghani strains. It is a member of cannabis and a potent 70/30 Sativa dominant hybrid that gives increased yield. It produces a similar smell and health effects. They are in great demand on the cannabis market. The lemon haze has the quality to give relaxation, fight against stress, acute pain reduction, and it consists of sweet aroma and taste. The Afghani characteristics of the strain produce enormous resin production. The quality of this strain is an excellent preference for the concentration and extractions.


Lemon slushie is a Sativa-dominant hybrid that consists of THC between 15% and 19%.

CBD or cannabidiol is a constituent found on cannabis and does not possess any intoxicating properties. THC is known as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, increasing appetite and keeping intoxicating properties. Despite these uses, it helps to relieve pain and nausea. It helps in many health issues such as pain, stress, inflammation, and other conditions.

What about the effects of lemon slushie?

It produces a strong effect of Sativa hybrid similar to that of s cup of coffee. It makes the person attain a state of euphoria, which helps them to be engaged in social interaction and mingle with new friends. It promotes overall health benefits that result in increased energy level, creativity, more relaxation, and happiness in the mind of the users.

The average amount of THC present in this strain is only 19%, and it produces the effects suitable to the patients to treat depression, stress, anxiety, vomiting sensation, and pain. The person suffering from inflammation and chronic pain can go for this strain. It can also deal with health ailments such as Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and Crohn’s disease. The person looking to do mental tasks in the household works such as cleaning the house and cooking food to pay for complete concentration.

Enjoying lemon slushie

After the legalization of cannabis, it gained popularity in some states. And its benefits have been identified by cannabis users about its medicinal properties. It helps to activate the creativity in both the professional and hobby artists of any field. Due to the presence of THC content, one may experience those effects. In the case of purebred strain, it may remove the mental blockage in the depressed person. The users of this strain can enjoy physical activity by providing additional energy and increased motivation.

Different flavors of lemon slushie

Based on the review of customers, we found that it has a lemon flavor. It is a dominant hybrid with a dank smell, a skunky citrus smell, and a taste of tangy and fruity tones.

Sativa strain – the dominant one

The dominant strain of Sativa represents that it comes by crossing the hybrid of cannabis. If it is a pure Sativa, it will not have indica characteristics. It shows whatever may be from the two-parent strains considered as pure sativas. Those people with a head high can consume Sativa-dominant strain. Doctors often prescribe it as a medicine to treat patients with depression. They tend to be higher-yielding varieties but produce less amount of THC. On the other hand, it consists of an increased concentration of CBD than indica species.

The dominant Sativa strain gives taller, thinner, narrower, and light green leaves. They can go to a height up to 20 to 25 feet high. You can grow it outdoors in a greenhouse. The temperature required for the growth of Sativa strain is warm weather. We can consume it in the daytime, and it will not make you high and lethargic. It is found that by using this Sativa dominant strain, one can have a clear mind and they think highly.

Cannabis duration in the body

After consuming cannabis, THC is leftover in the body for some days or even weeks. All the tissues and organs in the body absorb THC. The liver now metabolizes THC. Thus the metabolites formed are released out of the body through the urine. It will remove some THC present in the body from the bloodstream. The amount of THC excreted in the urine is less, and it is present in an increased amount in the liver.


We conclude here that lemon slushie is a dominant Sativa strain. You should consume it safely. While consuming this cannabis, you have to increase the dosage slowly as your system gets habitual to the medicine.


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People & Lifestyle

ADJOAA, Africa’s marketplace for premium fashion and lifestyle brands




Say hello to ‘ADJOAA’, a unique and exciting collective of premium designers of African descent, housed in a dot com universe that welcomes all of humankind to explore, learn and play. Browse beautiful designs and engage in heartfelt conversations with a platform founded on growing community and driving social change; for good

DUABA SERWA - Sekai Corseted Dress

DUABA SERWA – Sekai Corseted Dress

ADJOAA is a curated e-marketplace for premium fashion and lifestyle brands by African and black diaspora designers.



Founded with an enterprising spirit and a visionary objective: to spotlight and elevate designers of African descent and also revolutionise the fashion ecosystem in Africa and spearhead social change on a local, regional and global level.

MALIKO - Isabel

MALIKO – Isabel

ADJOAA celebrates the curiosity, complexity and craft-person-ship of African and Black diaspora designers, as both innovators and cultural taste-makers of discerning, premium design.



“We believe that designers of African descent deserve more equity in the world of premium fashion and that their craft and expertise should be accessible to a wider audience. We also believe that the narrative of African and diaspora makers and designers belong to them. We share it while leading the way for socially conscious businesses,” says Pinaman Owusu-Banahene, Founder & CEO.

VISTA PIECES - Multiporpose Desk Organizer

VISTA PIECES – Multiporpose Desk Organizer

Visit the ADJOAA website for more information.

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