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OPINION: Ghana’s economic outlook 2020



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Ghana’s economic outlook is not healthy, according to the key economic indicators. The most critical indicators are interest rate, inflation, exchange rate and debt accumulation as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) which measures the nation’s production output. The GDP growth rate is expected to fall below the 5% and 6% ideal range for the next two years.

Unemployment is forecast to continue to surge above the 7.2% mark by the end of the election year 2020 according to World Bank report. The inflation figure (7.8%) is not too much compared to the previous year but the volatile nature of the exchange rate of the local currency against the major trading currencies is causing prices to increase on the market indirectly.  Currently, Ghanaians spend more than 43% of their total monthly income on food alone. The outlook is close to a Goldilocks economy.

With the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, Ghana’s economy maybe hardly hit due to the impact on her trading partners ie China, Europe and the US especially because of mass production shutdowns and supply chain disruptions, port closures in China, The Covid-19 has caused global “twin supply-demand shock”. Africa is beginning to feel its full impact and plans to control and manage the humanitarian challenges of the virus are underway across the continent of which Ghana is not an exception. Economically, the effects have already been felt – demand for Ghana’s raw materials and commodities in China has declined and access to industrial components and manufactured goods from China has been hampered. 

According to ratings agency, Fitch, the Coronavirus outbreak will have a downside risk for short term growth for sub-Saharan African growth, particularly in Ghana, Angola, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Zambia, South Africa, Gabon and Nigeria – all countries that export large amounts of commodities to China.

The novel COVID-19 is expected to impact China’s global trade for several months and as China is Ghana’s biggest trading partner, the effects of COVID-19 are already being felt in the area of food supplies to Ghana. With China having shut down its manufacturing centers and closed its ports, there has been a resultant decrease in supply of commodities as most importers/exporters in China are cancelling orders due to port closures.



Over the next few months, the economy of Ghana would experience turbulent times which would lead to very slow GDP growth, increase in inflation, surge in unemployment rate, further depreciation of the cedi and a hike in interest rates. This is as a result of stagnation in domestic revenue mobilization, high interest payment on public debts, over the ceiling expenditure, continuous excessive government borrowings and increase in public service wages and salaries.

These are some very worrying concerns about the economic outlook of Ghana that need the attention of the Government, the economic management team and concerned stakeholders.

The novel COVID-19 may cause Ghana’s GDP growth rate to fall to 2.2% by the end of the year due to slowdown of both local and global economic activities. GDP growth only respond to economic activities and the lockdown of these buoyant cities like Accra, Kumasi and Tema would cause what I call Economic Activity Disruption.

Ghana’s sovereign credit rating was recently revised to B3 with a negative outlook and this ultimately emanated from the corona virus outbreak, the vulnerabilities in the economy especially on Ghana’s credit worthiness may affect the investor confidence built over the few years.

It is worth noting that Ghana has a track record of slippages during election year and deficiencies in revenue mobilization which always weakens the government’s fiscal target. Furthermore, the government may need approximately GHS78 bill which is 21% of GDP including debt amortization to meet its 2020 financing needs and fortunately the USD3bill Eurobond (4.9%) has provide some inflow to support government revenue needs.

However, the widening of the fiscal deficit means that government may need approximately 3% of GDP more in financing needs to meet its 2020 expenditure.

The government plans to fill the gap in the financing needs for 2020 from the USD1bill (1.6% of GDP) from the IMF (Rapid Credit Facility), World Bank’s USD300million (0.5% of GDP) and USD200million (0.3% of GDP) from the Petroleum fund, the remaining would be raised from the local market in government bonds.

Unfortunately for Ghana, its total debt stock is projected to 70% of GDP by the end of year 2020, unemployment to surge to 7.4%, cash deficit to hit 8% of GDP and tax revenue approximately by 35% of target for year 2020.Again, the widening fiscal deficit and the cedi depreciation is going to affect government revenue since the steep cedi depreciation is increasing external debts cost for the country.

Recently, the World Bank cautioned Ghana against excessive borrowing as the total debt stock of the country hit GHS214.9 billion with a revenue mobilization target of GHS67.07 billion, about GHS22.5 billion of which would be used to pay interest on loans alone.


The economy can experience a GDP growth rate in the non-oil sector which can translate into a positive macroeconomic growth boom. This can only happen when factors within the business cycle and private sectors of the economy have a change of policy direction.

Government and stakeholders should have a policy review on the following to change the narrative.

  • Capital availability for the private sector
  • Monetary policy rate must translate into Commercial interest rate
  • Cumulative data on demand and supply of foreign currency in Ghana
  • Policy credibility on incentives to exporters
  • Enforcement of policy direction on black market operations in Ghana
  • Policy credibility on improving administration
  • Strict policy on tax compliance
  • Overhaul the tax exemptions regime currently


A country’s economic outlook cannot be discussed without taking a critical look at the unemployment situation since it’s a component of determining the growth in economic development. 

The more employment the people get, the better and wider the tax revenue to be collected. The unemployment rate will average 7.4% in 2020 due to the job losses in the financial sector clean up, the unresolved Menzgold saga and the contraction in the private sector due to lack of cheap funds for SMEs.The reality is that some people have been out of work due to the crises in the banking sector and that they’ll never be able to return to the high-paying jobs they used to have. As a result, structural unemployment would increase. 

The real unemployment rate includes the graduate, unskilled, underemployed, the marginally attached, and discouraged workers. 


Inflation is a critical indicator in discussing the economic outlook of any country since it is a measure of prices of goods and services. It helps to measure the affordability of prices of both imported and local products and gives a sense of the living standard of the people in the country. 

Currently, the single digit inflation of 7.8% doesn’t translate into the prices of goods and services on the market and the reason is simple; the consumer price index (CPI). If the goods and services used are not the commonly and regularly consumed products of the majority of the citizens, the inflation figure would be small but the prices of goods and services in the market would keep surging as is the case of Ghana. Inflation is expected to average 9.8% in 2020 and rise to 10.5% in 2021 and 2022. The core inflation rate strips out those volatile gas and food prices



The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) has maintained the current policy rate at an average of 16% at the last MPC meeting. It doesn’t expect to increase this interest rate but the current prevailing economic happening may force the MPC to adjust upward the policy rate to match the demand and supply of funds and also the mechanism used to stabilize the depreciating currency.

Interest rates at the commercial banks are still very high, even though, the policy rate has been kept low for close to two years. The simple reason why the low policy rate cannot translate into the rate quoted on the commercial market is high cost of funds for the banks, huge non-performing loans and very unstable business environment for the private sector with power outages as a contributing factor.

Unfortunately, the Central bank is more concerned about preventing high inflation rate than promoting growth within the market space. In fact, the Bank of Ghana sees inflation as a threat especially in the coming years.

The slow economic growth and macro impact in the lives of the people is the result of very high interest rates, lack of availability and access to funds for the private sector to thrive and expand so it can employ more.


Ghana’s total public debt increased to GHȻ224.9 billion in 2019. As a percentage of GDP, the total public debt is now 63.1% of the rebased GDP in 2019. The bulk of the public debt, totaling GHȻ188.8 billion (85.3%) was incurred between 2013 and 2019. Of this amount, GHȻ86.3 billion (38.2%) was incurred in the 4-year period of 2013-2016 and GHȻ102.5 billion (47.1%) in the 3-year period of 2017-2019 and a total of GHȻ16.7 billion (8% of the total debt) was advanced towards the cleaning up of the financial sector, which the Bank of Ghana classifies as financial sector resolution bond. 

In February this year, the government issued another US$3 billion Eurobond to support its budget for infrastructure, restructuring of the energy and financial services sector, and a liability management exercise (Min. of Finance, 2020). This brought the total public debt stock to GHȻ234.0 billion at the end of February 2020.


                      Table 1. Ghana: Public Debt Accumulation, 2013-2019

PeriodTotal Public DebtDomestic DebtExternal Debt
GHȻ’ mil.GHȻ’ mil.%GHȻ’ mil%

                Source. Government of Ghana & BoG



Total domestic debt stood at GHȻ105.6 billion (49.6% of total public debt) as at the end of December 2019.  The bulk of the total domestic debt amounting to GHȻ84.5 billion (82.1%) was contracted after 2012, of which GHȻ35 billion (34.0%) was incurred in 2013-2016 and GHȻ49.5 billion (48.1%) in 2017-2019 (Table 1). The banking sector held about 44.7% of the total domestic debt stock in 2018, showing a significant increase from the 35.5% share in 2017 due to the issuance of stocks to support the bailout of the financial sector. Holdings of domestic bond by foreigners saw a drop from 38.6% in 2017 to 30.1% in 2018 (GoG, March 2019). 


Total external debt as at end of year 2019 was GHS111.9 billion (US$20.3 billion) in 2019, (52.1% of the total public debt). As a percentage of GDP, Ghana’s external debt is 32.4%. The bulk of the external debt, amounting to GHȻ94.3 billion (84.3%), was incurred between 2013 and 2019 (Table 1) with a significant portion raised through the issuance of Eurobonds. 



One obvious area of underperformance of successive governments is taxation which is immensely important to national development and a key source of sustainable revenue. 

While some may have praised the government about the growth in the economy, the reality is that the living standard of the ordinary Ghanaian has not improved, the reason being that economic growth and rebased GDP does not guarantee economic wellbeing of the people.

In analyzing economic performance, one critical thing to consider is the tax to GDP ratio of the country i.e. the amount of tax collection to the nominal GDP. According to Heritage Foundation data and OECD, Ghana’s tax to GDP is around 11.9% as at 2019 which is low as compared to the highest of 14.1% in 2017 and the lowest being 7.8% in 2000. This is an area that needs a lot more work to be done for government to be able to invest more into capital projects.

The persistent shortfalls in tax revenue collections is a key reason why the government continues to borrow excessively and it’s not sustainable for a near Highly Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) country like Ghana.


The depreciation of the domestic currency, the cedi, against major trading currencies is one of the key indicators you would want to look at when discussing the economic outlook of Ghana especially since it plays a key role in the rising public debt. The exchange rate of the cedi to the United States dollar witnessed a continuous depreciation since the redenomination of the currency. 

The cedi has since experienced some significant exchange rate depreciation sharply under the combined effect of the widening trade deficit and the terms of trade shock due to poor import duty management, hike in black market operations, repatriation of profit by most multinational companies ie. MTN, and some of the tier-one banks.

The exchange rate stabilized in the early part of 2017, recording just depreciation of 4.9% against the US dollar. The cedi however recorded a cumulative depreciation of 8.4 percent against the US dollar by the end of 2018, driven largely by domestic demand pressures and external factors, particularly, the strengthening of the US dollar and rising yields of US Treasury instruments, the effects of the US tightened monetary policy and the rise in interest rates. During the first quarter of 2019, the cedi again came under pressure, driven largely by;

  1.      Seasonal demand pressures that recurred in the first quarter of the year resulting from foreign exchange demand by importers and corporate institutions to repatriate profits and dividends, 
  2.       Sentiments over Ghana’s economic outlook following the completion of the IMF Extended Credit Facility support program fuelled pressures on the foreign exchange market. The interplay of these factors, according to Bank of Ghana resulted in a depreciation of the cedi by 8% at the peak of the crisis in March 2019. By end of 2019, the cedi-dollar exchange rate had increased to 5.53, reflecting a depreciation of 12.9% in the year. In dollar terms, Ghana’s external debt increased from US$4.0 billion in 2008 to US$20.3 billion in 2019. In cedi terms, however, the external debt increased from GHȻ4.9 billion in 2008 to GHȻ111.9 billion in 2019, driven by the cedi-dollar exchange rate which dropped from 1.22 in 2008 to 5.33 in 2019, indicating that the cedi depreciated by 77.1% over the period. Thus, anytime the cedi depreciates, the country’s external debt and debt payments in cedis increase by the size of the depreciation. 
  3. Black market operations and lack of adequate data on dollars in circulation at each point in time.
  4. Huge importation of goods and services into the country without proper forex management regime within the commercial banking space.
  5.      Again, crude oil importation, financial conditions on the global market, and other factors within the fiscal management space also influence the cedi depreciation.
  6. Interest rate/coupon rate differentials on borrowed funds when it’s time to payback also puts some significant demand pressure on the US Dollar


Some of the pressure appears to be largely self-inflicted and coming from deliberate fiscal under-reporting, using the little accumulated reserves to shore up and stabilize the local currency and reliance on external financing coupled with monetary policy. For example, instead of monetary policy increasing the policy rate in 2019, Bank of Ghana continued to maintain the policy rate at 16% and instead used more of its reserves to intervene in the foreign exchange market to reduce the pressures. This is unsustainable and not a good medium to long term measure.


Ghana’s 2020 economic outlook shows very unstable microeconomic indicators which has a direct and indirect impact on the macro i.e. the living standard and job sustainability and security for the people. The current situation in which Ghana finds itself leaves everyone in the country to be worried. 

From the outlook, Ghana will experience subdued economic growth, although HIPC is unlikely. The effects of the government’s appetite for excessive borrowing, over the ceiling expenditure both budgeted and off the budget, interest payment on loans and employee salaries and wages has left no room within the fiscal space to allow for capital expenditure and developmental projects that would boost economic growth.

It is unfortunate that the government boasts GDP growth of 6.3%, but about 4.5% of this growth happens in the oil sector which only employs very specialized and skilled personnel leaving the real sector with just less than 2% growth. The real sector of the economy is where growth is needed to create the jobs for the graduate, skilled, unskilled, and master craftsman. 

These have led to increase in unemployment and most companies are concerned about the uncertainty in the economy resulting from the upcoming elections and the skyrocketing debt profile of Ghana.

The thing to do is to stay focused on your financial well-being. Continue to improve yourself, start a business, and chart a clear course for your career in the fastest-growing industries like agriculture. All in all, an excellent time to reduce debt, build up your savings and invest more, and increase your wealth. 

About author:

Jerry J. AFOLABI is a Financial & Economic expert who believes that ordinary people can do
extraordinary things when given opportunity. He is a leader in his field and community. His
passion is to empower young people, adults and entities today with a love of learning and self-
determination to become effective and self-reliant citizens. Email: ; Tel:
+233541238987. #MONEYTALKGH



People & Lifestyle

What is a Good Size Sling Leather Bag to Carry?



What is a Good Size Sling Leather Bag to Carry?


As leather bags become more popular, the question of the perfect size arises. Too small and it can’t carry all your essentials; too large and it becomes cumbersome to carry. So what is the best size for a sling leather bag

Leather bags are classic accessories that never seem to go out of style. They come in all shapes and sizes, making it easy to find one that matches your style. A sling leather bag is a good option for those looking for a lightweight and compact bag. These bags often have a single adjustable strap that goes over your shoulder, allowing you to swing it around to grab whatever you need. So if you’re in the market for a new leather bag, consider opting for a sling design instead of something with two straps.

What is a sling leather bag?

A sling leather bag is a type of small bag that can be worn over the shoulder or across the body. They are typically made from leather or canvas and have one large compartment for carrying items.

Sling bags are an excellent option for everyday use or travel because they are small and easy to carry. Plus, they can be worn in various ways to suit your needs.

What are the different sizes of sling leather bags?

Sling leather bags come in various sizes, but the most popular ones are small to medium. Small sling bags can hold items like your phone, wallet, and keys, while medium sling bags can also fit a water bottle and an extra layer of clothing.

When choosing the right sling leather bag, you must consider your needs and what you’ll be using the bag for. Once you’ve determined that, you can narrow your options by size, color, and brand. With so many great options available, you’re sure to find the perfect sling bag.

Which one is right for you?

The right size sling leather bag for you depends on your needs. A small or medium bag should suffice if you use it for everyday use. But if you’re looking for a bag to take on a trip, consider a larger size.

Ultimately, it’s up to you to decide which size is right for you. So first, consider what you’ll use the bag for, then decide accordingly.

How do you choose the right color sling leather bag for your outfit or occasion?

When it comes to choosing the right color sling leather bag, it depends on your personal preference and what you’ll be using the bag for. For example, a neutral color like black or brown would be a good option if you’re looking for an everyday sling bag. But if you’re looking for a bag to take on a trip or to a special event, choose a brighter color or pattern. Ultimately, it’s up to you to decide which color would be best for your needs.

What are some of the best sling leather bag brands?

Some of the best sling leather bag brands include

  • Fossil
  • Kipling
  • Woosir
  • Herschel Supply Co.

These brands offer a variety of styles and colors to choose from, so you’re sure to find the perfect bag for your needs.

How to care for your sling leather bag, so it lasts longer?

When caring for your sling leather bag, cleaning and conditioning it regularly is essential. This will help keep the leather looking its best and prevent potential damage.

Also, you should avoid storing your bag in direct sunlight or humid environments. These conditions can cause the leather to dry out and crack over time.

By following these simple tips, you can help ensure that your sling leather bag will last for years.

Where to buy a good quality sling leather bag at a reasonable price?

You can buy a good quality sling leather bag at a reasonable price in a few different places. Some of the best places to look include

  • online retailers,
  • department stores,
  • specialty stores.

You can also check second-hand stores or consignment shops for gently used bags. When choosing the right place to buy your bag, it’s essential to consider your needs and budget. Once you’ve done that, you can narrow your options and choose the best place to buy your new leather sling pack.

What are the benefits of sling leather bags over other types of bags?

Sling leather bags have a few benefits over other types of bags. These benefits include

  • they are small and easy to carry,
  • they can be worn in various ways,
  • they offer a stylish and timeless look.

Additionally, sling bags are typically very durable and long-lasting, so you can expect to get years of use out of one. Consider a sling leather bag if you’re looking for a new one. With so many great benefits, it’s easy to see why they are such a popular choice.

Factors in Purchasing a sling leather bag:

When purchasing a sling leather bag, you should keep a few things in mind.

Consider the material.

Leather is durable and will age well, but it can be more expensive. Canvas is less costly but less durable. A padded shoulder strap is a must for those planning on wearing the stylish sling bag for long hours.

Think about the size.

Smaller sling bags are great for everyday use, while larger ones are perfect for travel.

Choose a style that you love.

There are many different styles of sling bags to choose from, so take your time and pick one that you like. The stowable waist strap and multiple carry options give you a versatile pack that can transition from a sling bag to a fanny pack to an external accessory pouch that you can attach to your backpack.

Remember to factor in the price.

Best Sling bag can range in price depending on the brand, material, and size. So keep these things in mind when setting your budget.

By considering these factors, you can be sure to find the perfect leather sling bags for your needs.


When it comes to choosing the right sling leather bag, there are a few things you should keep in mind. First, consider the material and the size. Then, choose a style that you love. And finally, remember to factor in the price. By considering these factors, you can be sure to find the perfect sling backpack for your needs.


How often should I condition my sling leather bag?

It would help if you conditioned your sling leather bag every few months to keep the leather hydrated and prevent it from cracking.

What is a neat pack canvas sling bag?

NeatPack canvas sling bag is a versatile pack that can accommodate everyone regardless of their vocation. It has plenty of compartments to store your belongings without weighing you down.

How do you choose the right sling leather bag for you?

When choosing a shoulder sling leather bag, consider the material, the size, the style, and the price. Then, consider your needs and budget to find the perfect bag.

What are the different types of sling leather bags?

Some sling leather bags include hobo bags, messenger bags, and crossbody bags. Leather sling Messenger Bag is also a good pick for commuters that don’t want to take up too much space on trains or buses.

What are some tips for using a sling leather bag?

Some tips for using a sling leather bag include storing it in a cool, dry place when not in use and avoiding getting it wet.

Additionally, be sure to condition the leather regularly to keep it hydrated.

What are the leather sling bag features?

There are many factors to consider when it comes to finding the perfect everyday shoulder bag, from style and functionality to comfort and price. The leather sling bag features nylon lining and multiple pockets both inside and outside. It also has a detachable USB extension cable and an earphone hole for your convenience.

Which is a popular, versatile sling bag for women?

Woosir offers versatile sling bags that combine a clever anti-theft design with plenty of organization for your daily essentials. Some feature a discreet all-black exterior made of a water-resistant material that protects your gear from the elements, along with waterproof zippers.


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People & Lifestyle

Stuffed Animals of a Baby Tiger—Plushies for a Good Cause



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The baby tiger is widely regarded as one of the most adorable animals in the animal kingdom. Overall, tiger species are rapidly declining, and tiger cubs are simple despite their strength and beauty. Additionally, they are utterly adorable. A tiger cub is the most adorable stuffed animal you can get for your child who loves animals.

Because they are one of the most beautiful and majestic animals in the world, it is unfortunate that poaching is slowly causing their decline. For instance, the number of Bengal tigers left in the world has decreased to just 2000. This is a terrible result of years of excessive poaching that is now almost completely unchangeable. However, baby tiger  kawaii plushies are becoming increasingly popular at a time when tigers themselves are becoming increasingly endangered.

To raise funds for their efforts to encourage the growth of the tiger population and further research into the species, foundations and other organizations around the world have begun producing and selling baby tiger plushies. You should buy at least one tiger cub based on these objectives alone. They are not only adorable, but they are also a natural step toward increasing the likelihood that tigers will survive and be seen by future generations.

It’s not as hard as you think to find these stuffed animals made by wildlife federations. The stuffed animals are available for purchase on many of their websites, and some department stores also carry them. Additionally, if you ever visit a zoo, you can be sure to find them for sale. Therefore, there are numerous resources available to you for finding these useful stuffed tiger cubs.

If you’re looking for stuffed animals that help another kind of endangered species, these organizations also help a lot of other species. These federations and organizations’ sales of stuffed animals also greatly benefit animals like orangutans, and supporting them is also a worthy cause. To raise funds for conservation efforts, stuffed pandas, another endangered animal, are frequently sold.

For further detail long cat plush  (Mewaii soften your life , sweeten your heart)

It’s great that these questions are being asked in this way because many people find it hard to say no to them. The fact that you are assisting in the preservation of some of the most majestic and exotic animals in the world is the greatest benefit you would require for something like this. Getting them is always great for yourself or a young child. A baby tiger stuffed animal or toy can do a lot more than you might think.

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People & Lifestyle

The Poor Young Boy From Nowhere Who Became An Influencer And A Philanthropist – Derrick Evans



The Poor Young Boy From Nowhere Who Became An Influencer And A Philanthropist - Derrick Evans

Let’s throw a spotlight on one amazing young man who has been one of the biggest helping hands to financially challenged youths and older people for a very long time. (more…)

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People & Lifestyle

Tips for Playing Online Poker Sites




There are more than 120 million people around the world logging on to enjoy games of poker online. While visiting a casino was once necessary for playing the game, players can now enjoy the convenience and range of promotions on the internet.

Learning how to play poker is a habit that features in many people’s lifestyles, it can take time and patience as you get to grips with the rules and different poker terms. There are also different variants to try, Texas hold’em is by far the most popular but other well liked types include Omaha, HORSE, Chinese poker and seven card stud poker.

If you are relatively new to the game or are looking to improve your strategy and chances of winning, here are some tips to try out:

Think about ranges rather than hands

You should first learn what the different poker hand rankings are, printing off a hand ranking chart and keeping it next to your laptop can be helpful if you are finding it hard to get to grips with this.

However, one of the key differences between a beginner player and someone a little more advanced is how they think about what their opponents might have. A new starter will try to guess their poker hand rather than thinking about ranges.

The range is the spectrum of poker hands that other players might have in that current situation. If you are predicting a specific card, it is likely that you are relying on a gut feeling rather than considering all the information you have collected throughout the entire game and using that to calculate pot odds.

Look for the best games

In poker, it is very important not to let your ego get the better of you, you do not want overconfidence to get in your way of making wise decisions. A player distracted by their ego could jump straight into high stakes games and tournaments without first testing out their strategy.

If you are fairly new to playing poker online, you shouldn’t jump into playing games with poker pros as they are very likely going to beat you and drain your bankroll quickly, instead look to play games with opponents with the same skill level and experience.

But how do you find these ideal opponents and games? Firstly look for games that are in the format that you are most comfortable playing in, such as cash games.

You should be careful to select games on poker sites where the site has the correct licensing and is safe and legal in your country. These sites are kept to a high standard and must make games fair.

To find the right opponents, research what the most popular times are for recreational players to play games in your time zone.

Start with lower stakes games and as you develop your strategy and build up your pot, you can start to cautiously branch out to higher stakes games and eventually play in tournaments.

Tips for Playing Online Poker Sites

Tips for Playing Online Poker Sites

Start by playing just one table

When learning and developing your poker strategy you want to be as focused as possible and avoid making poor errors of judgement. For this reason, less experienced players should stay away from multi-table games at first and start with playing at just one table.

Multi-table games are great once you are more confident in your strategy and need less time to think about how you are going to play your hands.

Consider buying a head’s up display software

Lastly, to level up from a poker beginner to a poker pro, you are going to want to make use of the poker tools available to you. There are many different software and online tools available to you, some for free and others that provide additional paid features.

The poker site itself will have some features, such as the ability to make notes. A head up display software can help you to track all the hands that you and your opponents have played during the game. You may also be able to watch a replay of the last hand to understand what has happened.

Paid software can give you the ability to watch entire games and tournaments back. Pro poker players in training will often study their previous games to review what went well and how they could improve in the future.

Playing online poker is thrilling entertainment and with these tips you can begin to develop yourself into a more advanced player and create your strategy for poker success.

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People & Lifestyle

Essay Editing 101: 10 Rules to Perfect Your Writing



10 Rules to Perfect Your Writing

Writing essays is the best practice you get during college and university years. Even though many students don’t see its benefit, it helps you in many aspects. When you perfect your writing, you master the art of creating arguments and defending your point of view. Not to mention improving your research, fact-checking, and style skills.


No one is born a successful writer: ask anyone in the industry. It takes a lot of patience, editing, revisions, and criticism to become a better version of yourself. You can always start by learning from professional writers and looking at how to write essay for me articles on Google or reading professional literature and books. Yet, the essential part is to start writing and keeping up with it all the time.

Learn from the best 

The key ingredient of mastering writing and editing your essays is to delve into what makes good and bad writing. Read critically acclaimed and less famous authors, journals, scholars, and different types and genres of text. Try to evaluate the style and what makes the pieces good. Be the judge and critic before trying to emulate some bits of it. 


Reading is a must for any student and professional to stay sharp. Consider how rules and conventions change and how you can make the most of them in your writing. The same goes for editing. Take notes on the most repeated patterns and how specific genres are formatted. 

Combine a part-time job with mastering your skills

You can combine business with pleasure by working as a part-time or freelance writer. As a result, you are practicing your writing skills and getting additional income. It is quite an unorthodox approach to mastering your writing and editing, but it works perfectly for students who don’t want to waste their time and get experience. As a freelance writer, you get all the soft and hard skills required to land your first job after graduation. 

Always outline your essays

Outlining your papers is essential for preparing any assignment. It is a simple yet powerful technique to overcome blank page syndrome when you start working on your first draft. When you have zero ideas about how to structure your paper or what arguments you want to explore, you are more likely to get stuck with writing.


An outline saves the time on writing and effort spent making sense of your initial ideas. Even though editing is all about brushing up on content and structure, you want to work with something with a shape. When editing, you can consult with your outline to quickly evaluate whether you achieved something or had changed the structure midway through. 

Editing vs. proofreading: what’s the difference?

Many people use editing and proofreading interchangeably. These two steps are significant to elevate your essay and improve it, but they have different intentions:


  • Proofreading focuses on technical errors such as spelling, grammar, punctuation, and formatting. 
  • Editing aims to fix tone, flow, paragraph structure, and content. 


Some of your essays will be completely different pieces of work after editing. Needless to say, it is completely normal. After all, you are creating a better version of your first draft. That is when your outline gives you an upper hand in tracking how you managed to update your paper. 


Don’t skip these two steps in revising your first draft. Pay equal attention both to proofreading and editing to polish your essay.

Take a break before editing 

Many people make the common mistake of starting editing right after writing. You need to take some time to get a fresh eye and notice what can be improved. At least an hour’s break to switch from your paper boosts your attention and creates emotional distance. Focus on other tasks and then come back to edit your writing.

Indicate repetition of ideas and words

Editing helps you spot repetitive words and ideas that can reduce your essay quality. Highlight each instance when you have paraphrased the previous idea or repeated the words in the same paragraph. Don’t rush into deleting it right away. Evaluate why you might have trouble introducing a new argument. 


Looking for repetitions improves your arguments and essay flow. Don’t overcomplicate your paper with fancy words and heavy sentences. Keep it simple but to the point.

Examine each essay section separately

Reviewing each paragraph as an individual unit can significantly help in editing the essay. It will make it easier to verify that you managed to develop comprehensive arguments backed by sources. 

Language matters

There are several golden rules to improve the tone and flow of your essay:


  • Avoid overusing adverbs. 
  • Choose active, not passive voice.
  • Leave filler words out.
  • Keep your grammar clear and simple.

Read your paper out loud 

Reading your essay aloud is an effective technique to explore your essay message. Often, when we write, we do not specifically perceive our writing as something solid. Many students write papers in chunks, which leads to a different tone of voice throughout the essay. It is one of the most effective ways to capture and fix flow and content inconsistencies.


You can raise the stakes and ask your friend to be your audience. People often are better at providing feedback on others’ writing and are more attentive to obvious mistakes.

Ask someone to read your essay

If you are too anxious to read out loud to your friends, ask them to skim your paper. Many errors and mistakes are invisible to us because of bias. Others don’t have this author’s perspective and can give genuine feedback and recommendations. Trusting someone to read your essay also helps you to overcome the fear of critique and judgment.

The bottom line

Editing essays is what makes them worthy of getting the highest mark. Don’t feel convinced to keep the first draft because you believe you put too much work into it. Most of the work starts during proofreading and editing, so you are not overworking yourself. Your edited versions will be ten times better when you look at them as a professional writer, not a novice.


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People & Lifestyle

What Is Dash Token? History and Future of an Altcoin




There are hundreds of different cryptocurrencies available to buy and trade on the market. For inexperienced investors, it can be difficult to decide which cryptocurrency to buy. Today we will look for tips on choosing a cryptocurrency and talk about the Dash crypto as a good investment option.

When choosing an investment asset, the following points should be taken into account:

  • The reputation of the project and the past performance of the development team.
  • Coin prices and charts: how have prices changed, and what does it depend on?
  • The underlying technology of the project and its benefits.
  • Real application, partners, clients.
  • Market capitalization and daily trading volume.
  • Supporters, backers, holders (investors).

Analysis of the project should tell you whether it is worth investing in. Now let’s figure out what is a Dash?

Crypto Dash Brief Overview

Dash is a good investment opportunity. The platform enables fast, cheap and efficient payment transfers worldwide using both fiat currencies and cryptocurrencies. The Dash cryptocurrency offers a fast and secure money exchange with low fees. The platform guarantees complete anonymity and decentralization of money transfers. It is a decentralized platform managed by users called master nodes.

The Future of Dash Altcoin

In mid-November 2022, the DASH USDT pair was trading at $33.88. The Dash chart shows that the price has fallen over the past months, probably because of another huge collapse caused by bad news front the FTX exchange. Experts believe the Dash cryptocurrency price will recover and reach $93.7 in 2023. As the market is falling now, you can buy Dash coins at a lower price and hold them for a long time until the market trend changes. You can also trade this coin and make money every day by applying an intraday trading strategy and scalping method.

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